Hedging is a type of language use which ‘protects’ your claims.

Using language with a amount that is suitable of can protect your claims from being easily dismissed. It can also help to indicate the known amount of certainty we now have pertaining to the data or support.

Compare the next two short texts, (A) and (B). You will notice that although the two texts are, in essence, saying the same thing, (B) has an important amount of extra language around the claim. A large number of this language is performing the function of ‘hedging’.

Compare the following two short texts, (A) and (B). Just how many differences do you see within the text that is second? What is the function/effect/purpose of each difference?

You shall probably realize that (B) is much more ‘academic’, but it is important to understand why.

(A) Extensive reading helps students to enhance their vocabulary.

(B) Research conducted by Yen (2005) appears to indicate that, for a substantial proportion of students, extensive reading may contribute to a marked improvement in their active vocabulary. Yen’s (2005) study learners that are involved 15-16 in the UK, even though it may be applicable with other groups. However, the study involved an opt-in sample, meaning that the sample students may have been more ‘keen’ who can write my paper, or more involved in reading already. It could be helpful to see whether or not the findings differ in a wider sample.

(please be aware that Yen (2005) is a reference that is fictional only as an example).

The table below provides some situations of language to utilize when knowledge that is making.

Try to look for samples of hedging language in your reading that is own add to the table.

Phrases for Hedging

Language Function with Example Phrases

1) Quantifiers

a fraction
a minority/majority of
a proportion of
to a point

2) Appearance

appears to
has the appearance of
is similar to
shares characteristics with
appears to stay line with

3) Possibility

has the possibility of
has the potential to
is able to

4) Frequency

tends to
has a tendency to

5) Comparatively

in a simpler way than .
more simply than …
When compared to …

Into the context of …
…in certain situations…
Within some households…

7) Ev >Based on …
As indicated by …
According to …

8) Description in language

could be described as
could be thought to be
is sometimes labelled
can be equated to
the term is usually used to mean
the term is normally used to mention to
this may indicate that …
this may claim that …

Language categories compiled and devised by Jane Blackwell

IOE Writing Centre Online

Self-access resources from the Academic Writing Centre during the UCL Institute of Education.

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Academic Writing Centre, UCL Institute of Education

Essays often sound tough, however they are the way that is easiest to create a long answer.
In this lesson, we shall glance at how exactly to write one.


Start your answer, and list what you should about be writing

Write about the basic ideas which will answr fully your question


Re-write exacltly what the ideas are and say why you have got answered them

Arguments, Keywords and Definitions

Before we start dealing with how an essay works, we need to proceed through three terms that we will used to describe what you do for essay writing structure.
Argument = all of the main points you are planning to write on in your essay.
Keywords = words which are important parts of the question
Definition = A one-sentence summary of your whole essay which you write in your introduction.
We shall go through some situations in a minute.

Basic Introduction

To write your introduction, follow these steps. Every one of these steps means you start a new sentence.

  • Rewrite the question using keywords, are the name of text(s) and author(s)
  • Write a single sentence answer (definition)
  • List all the main points of the argument

Illustration of an Introduction

Are pigs able to fly? (Question)
Pigs aren’t able to fly. (Re-write of question)
they are unable to fly because their bodies don’t allow them to. (Definition)
These are generally too heavy to float, they do not have wings or propellers, and additionally they cannot control aircraft. (Main Points)

Your body forms most of one’s essay.
This is the most important part of each essay you write.
Within your body, you have to argue all your points that are main explain why they reply to your question.
Each main point must certanly be in a new paragraph.

Each main point must be in a paragraph that is different. Each paragraph should always be put down similar to this:

  • Topic Sentence: a sentence that is short you repeat one main point from your introduction.
  • Discussion: Explain why your main point is right and provide factors why.
  • Evidence: Proof that you get from a text, a quote, or a ‘fact’. It must prove that your answer is right.
  • Lead out: Finish the point that is main you are able to go right to the next.

Illustration of a Body Paragraph

Pigs are way too heavy to float. (Topic Sentence)
Their large bodies and weight imply that they may not be in a position to float, which is a good way a creature can fly. To float a pig would need to be lighter than air. (discussion)
A pig weighs 200 kilograms, and this is why weight, it is not lighter than air. (Evidence)
This is exactly why, a pig is not able to float and cannot fly. (Lead out)

Conclusion of Essay Writing Structure

A conclusion is a summary that is short of you have written in your body paragraph.
It should ‘tie’ everything together.

As pigs are not able to float, they do have wings and cannot control aircraft, they not able to get into the air, and therefore cannot fly.